Off to the Oscars We Go: The History of Animated Features & the Academy Awards
When it premiered back in 1928, Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie was a near-overnight success. As the first Mickey Mouse cartoon to make it to theaters, the short film is responsible for launching the empire that would make Disney a household name. In the years that followed, Disney and his studio produced more Mickey pictures as well as a series of shorts that didn’t feature a single recurring character, the Silly Symphonies. Disney’s shorts started as black-and-white cartoons with sound effects and voices synchronized perfectly to the images. By 1932, the studios added color to their pictures; an incredible, realistic sense of depth (thanks to a snazzy device called the multiplane camera); and original songs and music.
At the fifth annual Academy Awards, Best Animated Short Film became a category. Disney’s first all-color short, Flowers and Trees (1932), nabbed the Oscar, kicking off an eight-year winning streak for The Walt Disney Studios. But this was also the Great Depression era: If folks had money to spend on entertainment, they were going to see double features, and maybe, just maybe, catch a short film before those feature-length ones. Part wise business decision, part creative exercise, Disney devoted much of the Studios’ time and resources toward the production of Hollywood’s first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937).
Disney Princesses Make Oscar Magic
Ahead of its release, Snow White was derided by the press, which called the film "Disney’s folly" because it marked such a huge financial risk for the Studios. After all, would audiences connect with animated characters in the same way they did with live-action actors? Would anyone, even kids, want to sit through an hour-and-a-half-long cartoon?
After three years and roughly $1.5 million, Snow White premiered at the Carthay Circle Theatre in December of 1937 — and audiences and critics alike absolutely adored it. When adjusted for inflation, the film made a staggering $8 million. Because there was no Best Animated Feature category — and because, despite how beloved Snow White was, it didn’t "qualify" for the standard Best Picture category — it earned Disney a special Honorary Oscar. As seen above, Shirley Temple presented Disney with the award, which features one regulation-sized Oscar statuette and seven miniature ones, representing Snow White and the dwarfs.
Over 50 years after Snow White’s release, Walt Disney Pictures made Academy Awards history again — with a different Disney princess. After garnering $331.9 million worldwide, the 1991 film Beauty and the Beast won Academy Awards for Best Original Song and Best Original Score. But its most impressive feat? Beauty and the Beast was the first-ever animated film to be nominated for Best Picture. In the end, it lost to Silence of the Lambs, but the fact that the animated feature ranked among the Academy’s top five films of the year still proves the strides made in animation and the medium’s ability to transport audiences.
Computer Animation Helps Push Feature Films to New Heights
Beauty and the Beast marked the second film (after 1990’s markedly less successful The Rescuers Down Under) to use the Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) — hardware and software developed by Pixar Animation Studios that allowed for a wider range of colors as well as soft shading and colored line effects, which had been cast aside when Disney abandoned hand inking (a.k.a. applying ink and paint to animation cels with brushes). CAPS also allowed animators to simulate those depth-creating effects first made possible by the multiplane camera, and allowed animators to combine hand-drawn art and computer-generated imagery more easily — as seen in Beauty and the Beast’s famous ballroom dance scene (section above, right).
This successful use of 3D rendering convinced Disney to invest more in computer animation — and it convinced Pixar, the CAPS creator, to make its first feature-length film, Toy Story. Released in 1995, Toy Story was the first entirely computer-animated feature film and broke ground insofar as it appealed to adults — its witty screenplay received an Oscar nod — with its fresh humor and exceptional characters.
This new mass appreciation for animated films, and this new understanding that these films could do more than just tell fairy-tales, opened the door for DreamWorks Pictures’ 2001 runaway success Shrek, which riffed on fairy-tales and Disney films. Shrek was so universally loved — not to mention it garnered a whopping $484.4 million worldwide — that the Academy created the Best Animated Feature category for the 74th Academy Awards. Of course, Shrek beat out the competition, which included Nickelodeon Movies’ Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and Pixar’s third outing, Monsters, Inc.
Into the Animation-verse
The year after Shrek’s historic win, the Japanese animated coming-of-age/fantasy film Spirited Away, directed by the legendary Hayao Miyazaki of Studio Ghibli, overtook Titanic’s box office record in Japan and became the most successful film in Japanese history, grossing $365 million worldwide. Often touted as one of the greatest animated films ever made, Spirited Away won the Oscar for Best Animated Feature, making it the first (and only) hand-drawn and non-English language film to win in that category.
In 2009, the Academy broadened the Best Picture category, allowing for ten nominees instead of just five. That same year, Pixar’s universally loved Up was nominated for Best Picture, making it the second animated film in history to receive such a nomination; while it didn’t win Best Picture, Up did nab Best Animated Feature Film. In 2010, Pixar’s Toy Story 3, the first animated film to gross over $1 billion worldwide, repeated Up’s success, garnering a Best Animated Feature Film win and a Best Picture nomination.
And, just last year, Sony’s Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse became the first non-Disney or Pixar film to win the Oscar for Best Animated Feature. Although Oscar recognition doesn’t mean everything — nor does it validate a film’s merits — it’s clear that thanks in part to awards buzz the field of animation has thrived. Disney competitors, like Studio Ghibli and the stop motion-loving Laika Studios, have added depth to the genre and helped animation find a broader audience. And, perhaps most excitingly, this recognition has driven filmmakers to push the boundaries of what animation is capable of as an art form.